Dubai – Vita da bar

A Dubai esistono tre categorie di stranieri: quelli che ci vivono, i lavoratori in trasferta per un po’ e chi si trova qui in vacanza. Gente che vive ormai stabilmente non ne ho conosciuta, tuttavia in giro si possono scorgere asili nido internazionali, quindi chi mette radici c’è. Di arabi originali, cioè di quelli vestiti con la tunica bianca o le donne con il burqa non ne ho visti tanti nel mio quartiere, invece il Dubai Mall ne era pieno, ma pieno pieno pieno. Magari del Mall vi racconterò più approfonditamente in un altro post perché merita un discorso a parte. Per quel che riguarda trasfertisti e turisti, sembra che la sera si ritrovino più o meno negli stessi locali. Ad esempio, qualche giorno fa sono andato in un posto che si chiama Belgian Café a Maidina Jumera che, manco a dirlo, è un centro commerciale. La vista dal terrazzo era molto bella, si vedeva bene la Buraj Al Arab, ovvero la famosa torre a forma di vela che c’è qui a Dubai e che è sempre illuminata a fuoco. Il posto è completamente arredato con temi che ricordano l’Europa, tuttavia è tutto finto. Ovvero, cosa è finto? Chi serve ai tavoli, prepara da mangiare e sta alla cassa è l’immancabile forza lavoro asiatica, probabilmente indiana o pakistana. A proposito! Qui di rivalità fra India e Pakistan non ce ne devono essere molte visto che fanno più o meno tutti gli stessi lavori. Io, ad esempio, lavoro ed esco la sera con due ingegneri, uno pakistano e l’altro indiano, anche se per la verità mi sembrano più inglesi che altro. In questo pub belga avevano le due marche di birra più famose, Leffe e Stella Artois, ma a parte questo, credo che le connessioni col Belgio finiscano qui. Era un po’ come trovarsi sul set di un film o in un parco a tema.

Aggiungo un altro esempio di “fintezza”.

L’altro ieri sono andato al Wafi Center che è uno spettacolare quartiere con tanto di piramide lucente e Partenone. Vi metto delle foto così vi fate una idea del posto.

Bene, la facciata del Partenone è realizzata in modo molto curato ed è rivestita di marmo vero, tuttavia non credo sia propriamente originale.

Anche in questo caso, nel posto dove siamo andati a mangiare non mancava l’arredamento a tema: all’ingresso c’era una statua di cera che raffigurava un esploratore inglese, di quelli con il cappello beige che sembra saturno, nell’atto di spolverare un sarcofago egizio rivestito d’oro.

Poi dentro è tutto pieno di quadretti con vecchi titoli di giornale sulle mummie. A proposito! I prezzi qui non sono affatto male: la roba costa molto poco ed le porzioni sono generalmente abbondanti.

Tornando sul tema, qui mi sembra un po’ come appare Las Vegas nei film americani e capita anche di conoscere gente che è venuta qui apposta per rifarsi una vita. Ma il vero paradosso è che Las Vegas è la capitale del vizio mentre Dubai, i vizi, almeno in teoria li proibisce aspramente; dico in teoria perché l’idea che mi sto facendo è ben diversa. In pratica tutti i locali o ristoranti o trattorie ti servono da bere alcolici che hanno un prezzo solo di poco superiore a quello che avrebbero in Italia; addirittura al caffè belga potevi ordinare carne di maiale e in molti dei locali dove sono andato c’erano molte ragazze in minigonna e tacchi vertiginosi, probabilmente dell’est Europa, diciamo come “in attesa”. Oggi invece camminando tra Al Rigga e il centro città, una prostituta orientale ha addirittura tentato di abbordare un mio collega in mezzo alla strada. È paradossale che con la macchina fotografica potrei prendere nella stessa inquadratura una donna semisvestita e una in burqa. Questo mi ha spinto a fare una riflessione sul fatto che questa città, se fosse una persona, soffrirebbe di una grave forma di schizofrenia.

Spero di non avervi annoiato troppo e il prossimo post tratterà più approfonditamente della schizofrenia.

Dubai

Sono arrivato da qualche giorno e inizio a focalizzare alcuni aspetti di questo posto che mi causano un certo spaesamento.

Prima del viaggio non posso negare che fossi a dir poco spaventato all’idea di trascorrere tre settimane in questo posto, senza conoscere praticamente nessuno e parlando un pessimo inglese e, come ci si potrebbe immaginare, nemmeno una parola in arabo.

Tutto sommato però a comunicazione non sono messo così male, tuttavia un po’ di disagio a Dubai mi accompagna sempre.

La città mi sembra stranamente poco battuta dagli italiani, solitamente noi stiamo ovunque e mi era capitato solo a Baku di non trovarne nemmeno uno, ma lì era diverso perché ci ero andato con tutto il mio team di lavoro che è quasi interamente composto da italiani.

Il motivo di questo snobbismo italico potrebbe annidarsi in una certa nostra idea preconcetta sugli arabi. Linko questo articolo del fatto quotidiano a titolo informativo http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2013/09/09/a-dubai-ho-contratto-di-lavoro-serio-in-italia-ero-troppo-qualificato/703475/.

Tuttavia si sono dimenticati di scrivere che qui i locali, come li chiamano nell’articolo, praticamente non esistono. Se ne vedono pochissimi in Bur Dubai dove sto io, e ancora meno da altre parti. Al Wafi Center erano tutti occidentali o così sembrava, stessa cosa alla Business Bay. Ci sono anche molti orientali, indiani, pakistani, indonesiani ecc, e a differenza degli europei svolgono quasi tutti i tipi di lavoro, dal giornalaio all’ingegnere. Quindi, a questo punto sono gli autoctoni che fanno fatica ad integrarsi con tutti gli altri che sono la maggior parte. Qui tutti, e per tutti intendo proprio tutti, parlano inglese e non sono certo mussulmani. Le donne solitamente indossano i pantaloni o la gonna e non il burka, anche se qualcuna l’ho vista.

Il quartiere  dove sta il mio albergo si trova a nord rispetto al resto della città e il Bury Khalifa disterà almeno sei km e invece sembra vicinissimo, complice il fatto che è effettivamente enorme e ieri che ero fuori Dubai in autostrada lo vedevo chiaramente durante la notte da quasi venti chilometri, come vedere il Pirelli dalla statale dei Giovi all’altezza di Seregno. Ma non sono solo le torri ad essere grandi, qui lo è tutto, dal marciapiede che sarà largo mediamente più di tre metri, alle strade che hanno tantissime corsie, e che tra le altre cose sono inattraversabili se non da apposito sottopasso o cavalcavia, quindi spesso mi sono ritrovato a vedere qualcosa dall’altro lato e dover camminare centinaia di metri per arrivarci. Le macchine sono essenzialmente suv enormi, e anche i taxi solitamente non fanno eccezion e  quindi l’effetto complessivo è che sono io che mi sento minuscolo.

Altra nota stravagante è la presenza di spazi vuoti, ovvero camminando a caso per la città mi sono trovato in più di una occasione accanto a estese spianate di sabbia circondate da quattro strade. La cosa è di per sè pazzasca perchè è una cosa completamente sconosciuta nelle nostre città europee. In quelle italiane non ne parliamo, trovare un metro quadro non “edificato” è una impresa, ma anche nelle città straniere solitamente gli spazi non edificati sono comunque molto costruiti, ad esempio i parchi che sono essenzialmente posti progettati ad hoc per non essere edificati. A Dubai invece vi trovate ‘sti quadrati di deserto, come in attesa, anche in pieno centro. Dire centro è un po’ improprio, non ho nemmeno capito dove sia, e non potrei nemmeno parlare di città policentrica perché vorrebbe dire individuare dei particolari punti nevralgici un po’ come a Roma è piazza del popolo oppure il Colosseo. Qui ci sono delle vere e proprie cittadelle coperte che sono i centri commerciali, ma essi sono enormi, quasi sconvolgenti, poi una downtown che si estende lungo tutta la città da nord a sud e i quartieri residenziali, in cui ci sono solo residence. Non ho ancora visitato molti posti ma questa è più o meno l’idea che mi sono fatto.

A breve cercherò di scrivere anche impressioni su altri aspetti di Dubai.

 

 

NXT ROBOT

E’ da un po’ di tempo che gioco con una scatola di lego mindstorms che mi è stata regalata per il mio compleanno.

Ho espresso il desiderio di riceverla in regalo e dopo qualche settimana la mia ragazza me l’ha fatta arrivare con amazon. Inizialmente mi sono sentito forse un po’ troppo cresciuto per giocare con i lego, ma ho realizzato ben presto che l’NXT non è affatto un gioco da ragazzi, o almeno non solo.

Dopo i primi esperimenti canonici (followliner ed esploratori) mi sono cimentato nella costruzione di un robot quadrupede.

Mi sono reso conto ben presto che i robot con le ruote non riesco ad entrare nell’immaginario emotivo delle persone. La massima espressione di robot è quella che emula la vita. Io con questo esperimento che vi mostro ho cercato di replicare un quadrupede.

Sembra un po’ il robot gigante dell’impero colpisce ancora; il mio invece è piccolo piccolo.

Spero vi piaccia il video

Livella Elettronica – Arduino – Electronic Level

 

Come promesso nel video postato su youtube ecco lo schema per programmare Arduino.

As promised… This is the code for the arduino electronic level.

int sensorPin1 = A0; // select the input pin for the potentiometer
int sensorPin2 = A1; // select the input pin for the potentiometer
int ledPin1 = 3;
int ledPin2 = 4;
int ledPin3 = 5;
int ledPin4 = 6;
int ledPin5 = 7;
int ledPin6 = 8;
int ledPin7 = 9;
int ledPin8 = 10;
int ledPin9 = 11;
int ledPin10 = 12;

int sensorValueX = 0; // variable to store the value coming from the sensor
int sensorValueY = 0; // variable to store the value coming from the sensor
int outputValueX = 0; // value output to the PWM (analog out)
int outputValueY = 0; // value output to the PWM (analog out)

void setup() {
// declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT:
pinMode(ledPin1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin4, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin5, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin6, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin7, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin8, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin9, OUTPUT);
pinMode(ledPin10, OUTPUT);

//Test the ledPins
for (int i=3; i for (int j=8; j digitalWrite(i, HIGH);
digitalWrite(j, HIGH);
delay(100);
digitalWrite(i, LOW);
digitalWrite(j, LOW);
}
}

// initialize serial communications at 9600 bps:
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
// read the value from the sensor:
sensorValueX = analogRead(sensorPin1);
sensorValueY = analogRead(sensorPin2);

if (sensorValueX {
outputValueX=0;
digitalWrite(ledPin1, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueX > 440 && sensorValueX {
outputValueX=1;
digitalWrite(ledPin2, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueX > 480 && sensorValueX {
outputValueX=2;
digitalWrite(ledPin3, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueX > 500 && sensorValueX {
outputValueX=3;
digitalWrite(ledPin4, HIGH);
}
else
{
outputValueX=4;
digitalWrite(ledPin5, HIGH);
}

if (sensorValueY {
outputValueY=0;
digitalWrite(ledPin6, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueY > 440 && sensorValueY {
outputValueY=1;
digitalWrite(ledPin7, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueY > 480 && sensorValueY {
outputValueY=2;
digitalWrite(ledPin8, HIGH);
}
else if (sensorValueY > 500 && sensorValueY {
outputValueY=3;
digitalWrite(ledPin9, HIGH);
}
else
{
outputValueY=4;
digitalWrite(ledPin10, HIGH);
}

// print the results to the serial monitor:
Serial.print(“sensorX = ” );
Serial.print(outputValueX);
// Serial.print(sensorValueX);
Serial.print(” & sensorY = ” );
Serial.println(outputValueY);
// Serial.println(sensorValueY);

// wait 100 milliseconds before the next loop
// for the analog-to-digital converter to settle
// after the last reading:
delay(100);

//turn the ledPins off
digitalWrite(ledPin1, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin2, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin3, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin4, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin5, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin6, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin7, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin8, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin9, LOW);
digitalWrite(ledPin10, LOW);
}

Schematic follows below!

Paneling methods on complex surfaces

This paper is an abstract of our research that we made for the Design & Technical European Group in Arup.
We are now working on a second phase in which will be involved construction companies to test and validate the method. This study does not revolutionize the current paneling methods, but the approach is quite new.
In the continuing research of complex and original architectural shapes, at certain point, in order to help the construction process and to maintain the costs on a reasonable level, we have to follow two different ways.
The first approach is the geometry rationalization, by using primitive shapes that approximate the original architecture. In this way, we can obtain a simple and ordinary paneling of the building envelope, but we can lose the fidelity compared on the original shape and we fall short on client/architect expectations.
The second approach is based on a transformation of the original continuous shape in a discrete geometry. In this way, we can obtain a paneling closer to the architectural shape, but involving in a higher number of different panels, depending on the original complexity.
By following this second way, the geometry team of the Milan office is working on a series of geometrical procedures able to optimize the number of different panels in a free form surface, by using Rhino and Grasshopper.

 

Objective

The objective of this study is to define a tool in Grasshopper/Rhino which allows creating and manipulating on a free form surface (input) different type of paneling (output).
The criteria are:
•    Study a geometrical approach able to define a serial paneling.
•    With this tool we work only on the size, position and shape for each panels.
•    We don’t change the original shape.
The first criterion is to reduce the number of different panels and optimize the final result. This tool allows managing the position, orientation and size of the panels on the surface.
The second criterion is to allow controlling the gap between the panels. In this way we want to reduce the number of different panels and adjust the panels positioning on the construction phase, by managing the gap.

Observation

In nature there are many examples of tiling, and by the evolutionary process   nature use “geometrical tricks” to achieve the best solution. The objective is to minimize the energy consumption in the life process (less and simple instruction = lower energy consumption). An example of tiling in nature is the pattern of the crocodile skin. There are similar examples in the natural environment, like in the landscape erosion process or in the crystal geometrical creation process.

Image 1-2: On the left crocodile skin (quadrangular pattern); on the right “Giant’s Causeway, Ireland” (hexagonal pattern).

Although the difference between natural world and cladding of complex building are clear and obvious, the way we want to follow is similar. In the contemporary architecture, there are many examples of buildings with complex surface cladding made with different approaches: one way is to use different panels that perfectly follow the shape. The problems with this solution are the major cost of providing a big amount panels all different, and during the life cycle, the maintenance and panel replacement.


Image 3-4: Bix-Kunsthaus, Graz, Peter Cook and Colin Fournier. Cladding with double curvature panels. The panels are all different.


Image 5-6: Museum Soumaya, Mexico City, Fernando Romero. Cladding of hexagonal pattern. The panels are all different.

Another approach is to cover the surface of the envelope by using modular elements: equal panels that include some type of connection joints to the building. This kind of cladding partially covers the surface, and the trick to cover the shape is varying the gap between the elements. In this kind of envelope the construction cost is lower (depending on materials, panel’s size, etc.) and the maintenance during the building life cycle is cheaper and easier


Image 7-8: The Yas Hotel, Abu Dhabi, Asymptote Architecture’s. Cladding with variable gap between elements.

 


Images 9-10: Selfridges department store, Birmingham UK, Future Systems. Also on this example the cladding elements are equal, but the gap changes.

Only paneling of flat and single curved surfaces can be obtained by a single panel type. For geometries with double curvature, like spheres, torus, or free form shapes, must be provided a tiling with a series of different panels. For primitives geometries (sphere, torus, cone) it is possible to optimize the result by minimizing the number of panels, depending on the size of the panels. The free form sheet, compared with the other type of geometries shown, is evidently the worst case.


Image 11 – Some examples of double / multiple curvature surfaces: hemisphere, cone, torus and free form sheet.

The free form surfaces is the object of our studies. The first tool called the “analysis tool” used to compare different solutions.

Analysis Tool

To compare the different solutions we need an automatic tool, that produces the result quickly and easily.
The analysis tool can produce these outputs:
•    Number of panels.
•    Number of panels families.
•    Space distribution of equal panels.
•    Frequency of panel’s types.
•    Frequency of equal panels edge lengths.
•    Variety of panel edge length.
The tool colors a facetted façade with a gradient following the same pattern of the spectrum according to the perimeter of each panel. The smallest panels will be colored in red while the biggest will be in violet, through yellow, cyan and blue. Equal panels or very similar ones will have the same color. In order to add more flexibility, the analysis script has an added parameter: the tolerance within which two panels can be considered the same.
According to the tolerance parameter it is possible to understand how adding or removing the gap between panels affects the global repetition of the façade.
The analysis tool will be useful for understanding the effectiveness for each method of rationalization showed in this document.
This tool is also useful for the analysis on tiling modeled with any method or software; so it is a versatile tool. It is sufficient insert as input a series of triangles. Sometime the triangles are obtained cutting surface of different shape, in this case you can use the “rebuild cut surface” module.

 


Image 12 – Tool scheme(Grasshopper)

The method

This chapter discusses the process adopted to define the paneling tool. For this purpose we have been using various software’s. Not all exercises have led to satisfactory results, but the proceedings were still useful to understand the right way to follow.
The major activities are:
•    Simulation by dynamic solver
•    Definition of a UV grid on a Nurbs surface
•    UV distribution of equidistant points on a Nurbs surface
•    Hexagonal pattern of a grid points that starts from origin.

Simulation by dynamic solver

The first idea was to compare the tiling of a building envelope to the behavior of a group of coins which stay by gravity on a surface. The question is: How can a group of coins be conforming to a surface to obtain the minimum distance among each other?
Obviously, the best distribution of a group of coins (the same type of coin) is on hexagonal pattern. By using only coins with the same size, all the coins have six tangency points (honeycomb pattern).
The process starts from a group of cylindrical meshes that simulate the coins. The cylinders are connected by 3d-rotational constraints on the tangency points; each coin has six tangency points/constraints with the adjacent coins. The final result is a planar grid oriented on the XY plane, including all the coins in the simulation.
The next series of images (image 13) show four steps of the process: the group of coins starts from a fixed position close to the curved surface (A), the dynamic solver starts and calculates the falling by gravity (-Z vector). The falling simulation is not 100% correct, not all the constraints work properly and some coins move out the grid position (B and C). In any case, in the final image of the sequence (D), the collision with the double curved surface reflects quite well the reality: most of the coins are conformed to the surface, only few coins don’t touch completely the surface.


Image 13: four steps of the animated sequence of the falling coins.
Image 14: simulation that shows the different coins behavior.

Image 14 shows the coins by colors that represent different behavior: green – the coins perfectly touch the curved surface; yellow – the coins are moved on different direction; red- the coins move more than the yellow. By this test we learn the following considerations:
•    A group of coins connected by hexagonal pattern grid cannot completely conform to a double curved surface.
•    Depending on surface curvature and coin size, most of the coins conforms the surface (like the greens in the simulations previously described); there are only few yellow and red coins.
•     This means that is possible to cover a free form envelope by only one type of cladding panel, except for some local areas were we need to provide special panels, with proper size and shape

Image 15: hexagonal pattern of circle. The green circle can have different radius, depending on the curvature of the conforming surface.

Definition of a UV grid on a Nurbs surface

One of the most used methods of tiling is subdividing a surface following UV coordinates.
In the common modeling software the surfaces are made by a wire of Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) curves.
There are two types of curves, U and V: U curves follow a direction while V curves are perpendicular or pseudo-perpendicular direction like the rows and columns in a table. They make a mesh and for each intersection there is a control point. This is a sort of coordinate system that can define and describe any complex surface.
The simples subdivision method is using directly the same definition of Nurbs mesh or rebuilding a new mesh with an interpolation using more or less curves in V or U direction. So this type of tiling is a regression of polynomial curves into a series of segments. Although this timing method doesn’t pay any particular attention to the serialization issue, it is certainly the way that approximates better the starting geometry. The panels that are obtained by this kind of subdivision usually change dimension in a gradual way, practically they are all different and they have, between the smaller and the bigger, important dimensional variations.
This method is the easiest, but it is not recommended. In the construction phase you may have a lot of technical difficulties related to the great number of panel types and to the great geometric variability between smallest and biggest elements.
However the panels obtained with this method must be not cut on the façade border, so this tiling is better on the peripheral of global surface. In the event that you have to work on very small surfaces, with few panels or very twisted or complex surfaces, with a lot of parts also convex or too concave, often the UV coordinates subdivision is the only possible way.


Image 16: Different UV subdivisions on the same surface

!!!::Distribution of equidistant points
An interesting method of subdivision of the surfaces in the panel is to operate through the creation of a mesh of points equidistant from each other lying on the surface itself. You can create a grid of skew quadrilaterals with all sides equal and diagonal dissimilar.

 


Image 17 – Equidistant Points Distribution

In order to obtain this type of subdivision is necessary to define a point on the surface and then proceed to expanding rings for definition of other points.
Is this necessary to draw the locus of equidistant points from the starting point to a predetermined distance; this locus is similar to the loci that define the circumferences on the floors, hereafter we will call it pseudo-circumference and it can also be seen as the intersection between a sphere of radius equal to the predetermined distance centered on the starting point and the considered surface (fig. 18). The curve obtained is divided into four quadrants of the same length, and starting from the 4 quadrants of the vertices are drawn 4 additional pseudo circumferences. The mutual intersections of the pseudo-circles and the outer points of the quadrants are the next ring of the mesh. The repeating of the same construction in an iterative way defines the mesh of equidistant points on the surface.


Image 18-19-20-21 – Distribution of equidistant points

This kind of tiling grants a mesh made by equal lines. A mesh like this is very useful especially from the constructions point of view.
A roof/façade that follows these criteria is serialized and at least the frames are all equals.

Hexagonal pattern of a grid points that start from origin

Starting from the assumption that it is often impossible to obtain a complete serialization of the elements of a free-form façade, we are testing a method that reduces the total number of types of panels and we try to spread on the maximum portion of the free-form always the same type of panel. We decided to use a hexagonal pattern starting with the definition of a point and expanding the mesh following concentric rings.
We define a pseudo-circumference starting from the centre of the definition of the mesh and we divide it into six pseudo-arcs of the same length. We define the six points at the ends of the arches and we use those points as centre to define 6 new pseudo-circumference.
With this system the points that define the six radial branches of the whole mesh are plotted.
In order to complete the mesh, the circles intermediate between the branches must also be defining. The problem is not trivial if you consider that it is in the intermediate zones that concentrate major deviations from the standard panel.
Were examined two different methods which differ only in the strategy adopted for the creation of intermediate points between the main branches.

First method:
To obtain the definition of intermediate circles we draw the segments that connect the centers of the opposite circles in the main radius of the mesh (in pink). The joining segments are divided by equally spaced points according to a progressive way; points are projected onto the surface. The intermediate circumferences have the center that intermediate points and constant radius.


Image 22 – First method for intermediate points definitions

Second method:
•    We trace the segments that connect the centers of adjacent circles. (segments BC and AC in Fig 23)
•    We define the median planes normal to the segments
•    (Plans  ‘and ” in fig 23)
•     We define the lines of intersection before any other median planes
•    We define the points of intersection between the straight lines and the surface (point D of Figure 23)
•    We proceed in an iterative manner with the definition of all the other points.


Image 23 – Generation of an equidistant point


Image 24 – Second method for intermediate points definitions

The second system for the generation of intermediate points is currently used in the final version of the tool presented in this paper: however this strategy in some cases, does not guarantee an acceptable result for the generation.
In particular, if the adjacent circumferences tend to align, the intermediate circumference will tend to move away from the other in an excessive way, while keeping the condition of equidistance. Currently the tool does not apply any correction to this problem even with a new algorithm more effective and that is still under study.


Image 25 – Paneling tool Grasshopper Scheme

Specifically, the tool was built using Visual Basic and Grasshopper.
More details can be found in the appendix to the contribution.
•    To start to use the tool you need to set some input:
•    Set the surface that you want to convert in a faceted tile,
•    Set the radius of the circles, which is also the size of individual panels that form the tiling,
•    Set a starting point of the definition,
•    Set the orientation of the tiling,
•    Set the number of iterations that must run the script (simply put the number of rings that make up the hexagonal mesh).
The output of the tool is a mesh of points which are approximately equidistant, usable for producing a paneling formed of highly repetitive elements.

Conclusions

At this point it’s important to consider the following aspects:
The tool is not perfect and it will require a second phase of development to improve the output. The most obvious problem refers to the outlying areas; the tool is not currently able to manage correctly and automatically the paneling near the border edges and it must be defined manually by a trick: expanding the edges of the surface so that the tool manages the original border areas as internal areas. The process is not automatic and it’s currently the only method that seems to work well, but still has some limitations: first a freeform UV surface can be extended beyond the edges in infinite ways. The manual procedure used is based on the extension of the curves U and V segments with tangents on both ends, but this does not mean that the extended surface is tangent to the original one. It really does not matter for our purpose: the border edges need to be extended only for the right positioning of the pattern points. Achieving this would be sufficient to make the tool more efficient and easier to use.
A second aspect that needs to be improved is the management of the tolerances of the paneling and the practical application in the construction phase.
In practice, the tool operates on the surface, creating a pattern where the individual units are not equal, but differ by a tolerance which varies in relation to the degree and type of curvature of the surface. The image 26 shows the same surface used previously with a false color representation in which colors represent the differences between the areas of each triangular panels.


Image 26: the output surface in false color. The dotted line represents the original border.

The result is satisfactory: the output geometry contains 727 triangular panels, the majority are red (85% approximately), in other words the difference between areas tends to zero, only a very small percentage has an intermediate color (orange, yellow and green – 12%) and only a small amount in the outlying areas of panels are blue / purple (only 3%).
Moreover, the geometry requires cutting over the dotted black line, which represents the original edge of the surface (image 26), so the outlying areas must be redefined manually. Finally, we could use a single type of panel to cover all the red area: this means that we have a variable gap between each panels, but this will be easy to manage during installation phases (in this report we don’t enter into construction and installation themes): in a second phase of this job we could be taken into account the possibility of collaboration with façade construction companies and steelwork manufacturer to test the validity of the tool.

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E’ trascorso un anno da quando ho aperto questo sito internet. Inizialmente il sito era stato creato con finalità autopromozionali, dato che era mia intenzione dare avvio ad una attività come libero professionista complementare al mio lavoro come Project Architect in Arup. Per tutto il 2011 parallelamente alle mie solite attività nello studio Arup di Milano ho svolto certificazioni energetiche (non molte per la verità), e qualche concorso di idee e in questo sito era possibile trovare una sorta di listino prezzi per le varie attività.Tuttavia nel corso degli ultimi mesi ho realizzato che contrariamente a quello che avviene nel resto del cosmo, qui sul pianeta Terra Spazio e Tempo rappresentano costanti inviolabili e 24 ore difficilmente possono essere dilatate in modo da permettere di portare a termine lavoro per Arup, certificazioni, trasferte all’estero, e stare un po’ con le mie due donne e frequentare i miei cari grandi amici. O meglio, per la verità ci sono anche riuscito per un po’, ma poi ho letto questo link e mi sono deciso a chiudere la P. IVA e farmi una dormita.

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Nel sito ora potrete trovare qualche informazione in ordine sparso riguardante le mie varie passioni, ovvero Architettura, Geometria, Elettronica, Science Fiction e Tecnologia in generale.Argomenti solo in parte coincidenti con la sfera professionale, ma che rappresentano il sale della vita.

 It ‘s been a year since I started this website. Initially the site was created with self-promotional purposes, I wanted to start a business as a professional complement to my work as a Project Architect at Arup. Throughout 2011 in parallel with my usual activities in Milan Arup office, I have done energy certifications (not so much), and architectural competitions and this site had to be a sort of list prices for the various activities. However after few months, I realized that contrary to what happens in the rest of the universe, here on planet Earth, Space and Time are inviolable constants and 24 hours are unlikely to be dilated to allow to carry out work for Arup, certifications, travel abroad, and stay a while with my two women and attend my dear friends. Or rather, to be honest there are also managed for a while, but then I read this link and I decided to close the P. VAT and take a nap.

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Actually you can find in this site some information in random order on my various passions, Architecture, Geometry, Electronics, Science Fiction and Technology in general. Topics only partly overlapping with the professional sphere, but which are the spice of life.

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